The first Friday Mosque of Bukhara was founded in 713 by the Arab commander Qutaiba ibn Muslim in kuhandiz (Ark/fortress) of Bukhara on the site of a pagan temple in the first quarter of the 12th century. Karakhanidian ruler Arslan –khan, Muhammad ordered to transfer Friday mosque and minaret to the western part of shakhristan. This action ended in failure: the unfinished minaret crumbled and destroyed the mosque. The mosque was restored in 1121, and the minaret, which was completed eight years later, still serves as a vertical dominant in the historical part of Bukhara.
As archeological research shows now under the existing mosque there are the remains of two more mosques and the lower one is the construction of Arslan – Khan, and it had the same dimensions as the current existing building. Apparently, it was the largest mosque in Mavarannahr before the construction of Bibi-Khanum Mosque (Khanum/ Khonim) in Samarkand in 1399-1404. The second mosque (the first quarter – the middle of the 14th century) was erected on the site of the first, and was of the same type, but the whole brick one. The third now existing building is a mosque which was built supposedly during the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek. This grand construction (80x130m) is rectangular, elongated in the east-west axis.
In 1514, during the reign of Ubaydallah-khan (date – in the alcove of the entrance portal), there has been undertaken the large repair of the mosque. In recreating the majolica inscriptions master Bayazid al-Purani participated. In 1542, in the niche of the entrance portal the marble plaque with the text with the order on behalf of Abdullaziz-khan (son of Ubaydalla-khan) about releasing the inhabitants of Bukhara from certain taxes (the inscription is made by the same calligrapher pir shaykh al-Purani) was built in. At the beginning of 20th century, Bukhara master Shirin Muradov was involved in repair work of the mosque.